Learning Goal 1: Identify the most important developmental processes and periods.
Biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional are the three most important processes which are bidirectional to each other. The most important periods are from the prenatal period, to infancy, early, middle, and late childhood, adolescence to early, middle, and late adulthood and finally death. No period is more important than other.
A. Define and identify biological processes.
A change to ones physical attributes in nature by genes from parents, to development of the brain, weight and height, motor skills, hormonal changes from puberty to the decline of cardiovascular later in life.
B. Define and identify cognitive processes.
Change to ones thoughts, intelligence, and language such as learning to do a crossword puzzle or calculus, etc.
C. Define and identify socioemotional processes.
The Changes from ones relationship with others in emotions and personality such as smiling or frowning learned early as an infant to late adulthood.
Learning Goal 2: Describe three key developmental issues.
Nature-nurture is the difference between ones inheritable traits and the environment where the person experiences.
Stability-change is the difference between early traits that either continue as the same or are plastic and change through ones life. Such as a shy kid will always be shy or change later in life.
Continuity-discontinuity is where development is gradual continuity or distinct stages discontinuity. A child that goes through puberty is continues as it last only for a few years and a child that all of sudden looks at the world abstractly is a discontinuity development rather than continuity development.
A. Define nature and nurture, and discuss the nature/nurture debate.
Nature is the DNA inheritable from the person’s parents, and nurture is the way a child is raised in the environment.
The debate is some psychologists believe that DNA can depress psychological as barren or hostile for people. Then other psychologists emphasize importance of nurture environmental experiences such as social environment like media, culture, family, peers, and school & biological environment other than DNA like drugs, nutrition, and physical accidents. In my Biology 160 class, Dr. Browne and I had debated this for a bit, as she told me that DNA and intelligence in humans is environment and not DNA related. I still argue to this date, as we still do no know what that junk non-encoding DNA does!
Learning Goal 3: Describe theories of life-span development.
A. Discuss Freud’s psychosexual theory.
Freud’s theory is the pleasure at five stages with ones development that can be either under gratified or fixated (locked in) is:
ORAL STAGE – birth to 1.5 years – pleasure centers on the mouth
ANAL STAGE – 1.5 to 3 years – pleasure of their anus
PHALLIC STAGE – 3 to 6 years – pleasure of their genitals
LATENCY STAGE – 6 to puberty – sexual interest and develops and intellectual skills
GENITAL STAGE – puberty to beyond – sexual pleasure outside the family
B. Discuss Erikson’s psychosocial theory.
Erickson believes that we develop eight psychosocial stages rather than Freud’s psychosexual theory:
1> First year - Infancy –Trust vs. mistrust
2> 1 to 3 years - Infancy – Autonomy vs. shame & doubt
3> 3 to 5 years – Early childhood – Initiative vs. guilt
4> 6 to puberty - Middle & late childhood – Industry vs. inferiority
5> 10 to 20 years - Adolescence – Identity vs. identity confusion
6> 20s to 30s Early - Adulthood – Intimacy vs. isolation
7> 40s to 50s Middle Adulthood – Generatively vs. stagnation
8> 60s to death – Late adulthood – Integrity vs. despair
C. Discuss Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory.
Piaget has four cognitive stages that he believes people go through in periods of their life were the child to adult has a different stage compared to another.
Sensorimotor stage – Birth to 2 years of age – sensory experiences from reflexive instinct actions at birth to symbolic thought toward the end
Preoperational stage – 2 to 7 years of age – the child sees the world with symbols like words, and images that reflect increased symbolic thinking and go beyond the connections of sensory information and physical action. However lack the ability to mentally think of what they can do to something physically or lacking concrete operations.
Concrete operation stage – 7 to 11 years of age – The child reasons logically about concrete events and classifies objects into different sets.
Formal Operational stage – 11 to adulthood – reasoning more abstract, idealistic, and logical ways.
NOTE: My daughter 7 and son 8, I noticed differ from concrete reasoning. Now I have to tell my wife to not be so hard on our daughter who is trying her hardest to reason like our son if this cognitive development theory is somewhat true. This summer also, I was thinking of teaching my son how to do algebra, I probably should wait until 11 years of age.
D. Discuss Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory.
That is some cultures children learn from inventions of society like learning how to count beads compared to a child using a computer program to learn counting and mathematics. Vygotsky’s theory states that a more skilled adult who interacts with children is indispensable to the child’s cognitive development.
E. Discuss Skinner’s operant conditioning.
Reward and punishment for behavior development rather than thoughts and feelings is Skinner’s theory. Like if a young child does something that you approve, you smile and that is the reward. If the child does something you disapprove, a frown which is punishment.
F. Discuss Bandura’s social cognitive theory.
Behavior, environment, and a person’s cognitive factor become the key factors in development. Like if I were to yell at my roommates and be angry in front of my son, my son could possibly to his peers, a modeling or imitation.
Learning Goal 4: Explain how research on life-span development is conducted.
A. Define and discuss the two types of observational research.
Laboratory observation – lacks real world complex factors, I’m possible to conduct research without the participants knowing, is unnatural environment, lacks cultural diversity backgrounds, and participants may be intimidated by the laboratory settings. Good for observing children to control stressors and factors with more confidence interpreting the observation.
Naturalist observation – no means to manipulate or control the situations ergo provides insights that cannot achieve in the lab.
B. Compare and contrast survey and interview research.
A survey as a questionnaire of attitudes and beliefs can be used to study a wide range of topics like sexual habits to religion. The interview research can be conducted in person, over the internet, or over the phone.
The draw back is like if you ask someone if they smoked crack, and they answered no when in-fact they did in the past, the participants can answer the question socially acceptable or desirable rather than what they truly feel or think.
C. Describe standardized tests and explain why they are used.
The test has a uniform procedure for administration and scoring and can be compared for the person’s performance to others who take the test. Some tests scores can vary from place taken due to anxiety of the place.
D. Discuss the case-study method of research.
In depth view of a single person and mainly done by mental health professionals.
E. Describe descriptive research.
A way to Record and observe behavior of all the data-collection methods from A to D. Can not be used to prove what causes phenomenon when someone is unselfish or aggressive toward each other.
F. Discuss correlational research and its limitations.
This type of research is a contrast of descriptive research and goes beyond describing phenomena to predict behavior. However, correlational research doesn’t equal cause and effect or causation in some situations.
G. Describe experimental research and its uses.
A way to change one or more factors believed to influence the behavior of a subject and have those factors constant. Then the cause is the factor that was manipulated and the effect is the behavior. This experimental research requires a random sample of subjects and a control group.
H. Compare and contrast cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential (<<I think cohort effect?) approaches to research.
Cross-sectional approach is research done in groups of people by age. Like comparing 10, 20, and 40 years olds which allows the researcher to get a look at subjects and not have to wait for them to get older.
Longitudinal approach is research where the subject is studied over 50 year time span at ages of maybe 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 for example.
Cohort (I think sequential) is the effects that happen during a generational time, like WWI, WWII, Iraq War I and II, The great depression etc but not by age.
All three compare to studding variables such as IQ, memory, peer relations, attachment to parents, hormonal changes, etc.
Learning Goals Chapter 2
Learning Goal 1: Describe what genes are and how they influence human development.
A. Describe the genetic process.
An adult human contain over a trillion cells, inside each cell is a nucleus which contains strands of DNA. The strands are called a chromosome which humans have 23 pairs. And inside each chromosome set or chromosomes is spiraled segment of DNA, kind of like an encyclopedia book and it that book are many thousand pages of genes. The gene starts as three-base sequence called a codon, and starts of the gene as AUG and the other side of the DNA which is splits in the nucleus and copies that part of opposite of strand as messenger RNA, for that part of the gene. The messenger RNA later leaves the nucleus and makes proteins by moving to a rRNA and getting attached by a transfer RNA (anti-codons) which is attached by the 20 different amino acids.
Some genes are turned off and on depending on the where AUG is and the stop codons UAG, UAA, and UGA which stops the process. These genes get turned on or off that regulate the body’s processes and traits.
You have 46 chromosomes total inside every cell except for sperm and egg cells, and you were fertilized inside a woman when sperm and egg met after intercourse or in vitro fertilization from or by a male or female from 23 chromosomes for each parent. That means you have 23 to the 23 combinations that you could have been made, very unique!
B. Define and discuss chromosomes, DNA, and genes.
Please read “A” above, I did more than average example (I received 3.9 in BIO160)
C. Describe the processes of mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization.
Mitosis is when one cell becomes two identical cells or daughter cells and is identical. First the cell goes through interphase where the chromosomes are duplicated so 46 in human become 92 chromosomes and later in the cells life the chromosomes condense and the nucleus dissolves then the chromosomes pair together, and then they separate to the separate poles of the cell with exactly the same chromosomes about half the organelles and cytoplasm, then cytokinesis occurs and the cells split to two daughter cells. Then the cell grows and repeats this forever until death. (Minus the heart and brain cells)
Meiosis forms in the same way except for its split twice and at the end we are left with four haploid cells which only contain 23 unpaired chromosomes. Female humans have eggs, and males have sperm.
Fertilization occur when an egg is penetrated by a sperm and fuse to create a single cell, a zygote which is 23 parried chromosomes from each male and female.
D. Define and describe chromosome-linked abnormalities.
Sometimes the sperm or egg have abnormalities and do not contain or have extra normal set of 23 paired chromosomes. Down syndrome is an example. People that have the syndrome on Chromosome 21 they have a third copy of the chromosome. It will cause in the child, mild to severe retardation and physical abnormalities.
E. Define and describe sex-linked chromosomal abnormalities.
Normally a newborn has either two X chromosomes for a girl, and X or Y for a boy. But to be a viable newborn, it must have at least an X chromosome as the Y chromosome does not contain that many genes and is very small.
Abnormalities can be an extra X for males Klinefelter syndrome where the boy will later show breast and undeveloped small testes, most are infertile or low sperm count.
E. Define and describe gene-linked abnormalities.
This occurs when genes are turned off when they are supposed to be on. Like hemophilia which the gene for blood clotting doesn’t properly in males and can die from internal bleeding.
Learning Goal 2: Characterize some of the ways that heredity and environment interact to produce individual differences in development.
A. Discuss the conclusions regarding heredity–environment interaction.
Both heredity and the environment play a very important role in ones life span. Being attractive or non attractive to others is heredity and the environment which one is raised also makes a difference. Loving parents or the opposite is environment and same with the neighborhood and schools.
Learning Goal 3: Describe prenatal development.
A. Describe the three stages of prenatal development and the major events occurring during each period.
First is the germinal period that is the first two weeks after conception where the zygote becomes a blastocyst which turns in to a embryo.
Second is the Embryonic period 2 to 8 weeks after conception, a inner layer of cells the endoderm develop to digestive and respiratory system, then the ectoderm is the outer layer which becomes the nervous system, sensory receptors, and skin parts. Lastly, the mesoderm in the middle layer becomes the circulator system, bones, muscles, excretory system, and reproductive system.
Third is the fetal period that occurs 2 to 7 months after conception. This is where growth and development occurs drastically until the baby is viable and is born. There are trimesters, where the first one two periods are the first trimester, the second is the beginning of the fetal period, and the third trimester starts when the chance of surviving outside the womb occurs.
B. Describe the effects of teratogens upon development.
Is are drugs, incompatible blood types, environment toxins, diseases, deficiencies in nutrition, maternal stress, advanced male and female age. This can cause the fetus to have birth defects or negative cognitive and behavior problems.
C. Describe how cultural beliefs about pregnancy influence seeking prenatal care.
Culture does make a difference, like a white middle class or just middle class couple will seek medical care (probably because they have heath insurance).
D. Describe the birth process, and list advantages and disadvantages of different alternative birthing methods.
Three stages, first begins when the uterine contractions are 15 to 20 minutes apart and last a minute at the end of this stage the cervix opens up to 4 inches and this stage is the longest.
Second is the when the baby’s head starts to move through the cervix and ends when the baby is out of the human female. The first time births last about 1.5 hours, and later births about 45 minutes in this stage.
Third is the afterbirth when the placenta with the umbilical cord, and other membranes eject and this stage only lasts for a few minutes.
There is Natural or prepared childbirth where the baby goes through the vagina. There are three types of drugs to help the mother through this or can be done without medication, water birth, massage, and acupuncture and they help the baby and mother. I did not find any disadvantage other than the difference of no medicated to medicated is less pain for the mother.
Then the cesarean delivery when the baby is breached and is born by having the doctor make an incision in the mother’s abdomen, it’s risky to baby and mother due to risk and infection.
Learning Goal 4: Discuss the birth process and the postpartum period.
A. Describe the birth process.
Already answered that above “D”
B. Discuss controversy about bonding in the postnatal period.
It was determined that the mother who was drugged for the
birth was not to see her baby and controversy occurred for the first bonding of
a new born. Some hospitals like Swedish
C. Discuss factors in the physical recovery of mothers after pregnancy.
New mothers will not ovulate on schedule if they are breastfeeding. They loose estrogen and progesterone after birth, and it will take a while for those normal levels to return to normal. 2 to 3 pounds is the weight of the uterus immediately after birth, and it goes to 2 to 3.5 ounces in six weeks.
D. Describe the emotional and psychological adjustments that new parents must make.
blues occurs in 70% of new mothers in the
Fathers if not involved with the baby process or childbirth classes can feel replaced by the baby.
(NOTE: I did childbirth classes with my wife in 2001, and then 2002 the past class PSYCH 100 also helped me through this, no depression for my wife at all but our first baby in the 2nd birth stage took 4 hours and 2nd baby, took 15 minutes)