Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Due Wednesday, July 29, Before 12:00 Noon
Learning Goal 1: Discuss the nature of adolescence.
A. Compare public assumptions about adolescents with research findings.
The public assumption is with personal experience and media assumes the worst however research in 10 countries showed that 73% of the adolescents displayed healthy self-image.
Learning Goal 2: Describe the changes involved in puberty, as well as changes in the brain and sexuality during adolescence.
A. Define and discuss puberty.
†††† A period of rapid physical maturation using hormonal and bodily changes usually during early adolescence.
B. Define hormones and explain the role of the endocrine system in puberty.
†††† Is a chemical secreted by the endocrine glands and travels by the blood system.
†††† The endocrine system includes the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and gonads.†
†††† Hypothalamus is a structure in the brain that monitors eating and sex.
†††† Pituitary gland is in the center of the brain that controls growth and regulates other glands, like the gonads.
†††† Gonads are the testes in males and ovaries in females that give rise to pubertal changes in the body.
B. Discuss the variations in timing of the onset of puberty.
Genetics and environment like nutrition, health, and other factors play a role in puberty and timing.† Girls now are 9 to 15 and boys 10 to 13.5 and puberty is happening earlier possibly due to improved living conditions. †
D. Discuss body image in adolescence and the role of body art in adolescent development.
Usually girls are dissatisfied with their bodies because maybe fat increases and boys become more satisfied as they have more muscle mass.
E. Describe and discuss the impact of early and late maturation on development.
†††† Early maturating boys showed more positive and more successful peer relations then later maturing boys.† However, the late maturing boys in their 30s had a stronger sense of identity possibly due to more time to explore lifeís options.
As for girls, early maturing has a vulnerability to smoking, drinking, and be depressed, have eating disorders, struggle for independence from parents, and have older friends and lead to elicit responses from males that leads to early dating and sexual experiences.
F. Discuss contraceptive use.
†††† Ninth to 12 graders in 1991 46% used condoms, 2003 it rose up 63%.
†††† Adolescents who used withdrawal or no method declined from 33% in 1991 to 19% in 2003
†††† 15-19 year olds 47% boys said they used condoms, while 28% girls said that they used.
G. Describe and discuss sexually transmitted infections and adolescent pregnancy.
††††††††††††† STIs are infections contracted by oral-genital and anal-genital contact.† 3 million or ľ of sexually experienced adolescent contracted STIs. A teenage girl having unprotected sex once has 1% chance of HIV, 30% getting herpes, and 50% gonorrhea.
Adolescence girls who get pregnant usually drop out of school.††
Learning Goal 3: Identify adolescent problems related to health, substance use, and eating disorders.
A. Discuss the research findings involving adolescent eating disorders.
From the 1990s to 2004 US 12 to 19 year olds increased from 11% to 17% of overweight.† Also, US kids ate more junk food than 28 countries.†
B. Describe the characteristics of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Anorexia nervosa is a disorder where the person starves themselves to pursue thinness.† 1:† Weighing less than 85% of considered normal 2: having an intense fear of gaining weight 3: having a distorted body image.† Media is to blame!† 10 times more likely to occur in females than males. Most are white young adults well educated, middle and upper-income families and competitive in school.†
Bulimia Nervosa is the opposite of starving, they binge eat and then purge.† People that do this usually have the normal weight range which makes it more difficult to detect. 90% are women, 70% can recover.† †
Learning Goal 4: Explain cognitive changes in adolescence.
A. Discuss Piaget's theory of cognitive development in adolescence.
Around age 11 the fourth and final stage is the formal operational stage begins.
B. Define and discuss thinking in the formal operational stage.
Itís more abstract than concrete allowing to make-believe situations, abstract propositions, and events that are purely hypothetical and can reason logically about all of this.†
C. Define and discuss the components of adolescent egocentrism.
†††††††††† Heightened self-consciousness that involves imaginary audience where the person believes that others are interested in them because they themselves are, has the attention-getting behavior motivated by a desire to be noticed like on a stage.
Then personal fable where the adolescent senses uniqueness and invincibility or invulnerability.†
Chapter 10: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
Learning Goal 1: Discuss changes in the self and emotional development during adolescence.
A. Describe and discuss the self and identity.
Identity is the self-portrait that contains many pieces like vocational/career, political, religious, relationship, achievement and intellectual, sexual, cultural/ethnic, interest, personality, and physical.
B. Describe the development of identity according to Erikson.
Identity vs. identity confusion is when adolescents decide who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life.†
C. Describe and discuss family influences on identity development.
Family atmosphere promotes individuality or the ability to have communication to a point of view and communication patterns of uniqueness.† Connectedness which is made of two aspects, one which is mutuality which involves sensitivity to, and respect for, othersí views and then permeability which involves openness to othersí views. ††
D. Describe and discuss cultureís impact on ethnic aspects of identity development.
Is an enduring basic aspect of the self that includes sense of membership in an ethnic group and the related attitudes and feelings to the membership.
In non-European ethnic groups, discrimination and racism influences whether ethnic identity is retained in developing a bicultural identity.
Learning Goal 2: Identify adolescent problems in socioemotional development and strategies for helping adolescents with problems.
A. Discuss prevention/intervention programs for adolescent problems.
1 Intensive individualized attention where the high risk adolescent is attached to an adult and a student assistance counselor and referral for treatment.†
2 Community-wide multi-agency collaborative approaches where local media and community education works for substance-abuse curriculum.†
3†††† Early identification and intervention is reaching younger children and their families before the child develops problems.†