Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development
in Middle and Late Childhood Due, Wednesday, July 22, Before 12:00 Noon
Learning Goal 1: Describe physical changes and health in middle and late childhood.
A. Discuss body growth and change.
Average of 2 to 3 inches a year until 11 years and boys are 4’9” and girls 4’10.25”. Gain of 5 to 7 lbs a year. Head and waist circumference decreases in relation to body height.
Bones ossify and still yield pressure and pull more than mature bones.
Boys are stronger than girls because of muscle cells.
B. Discuss brain development.
Total brain volume stabilizes linked to improvements in cognitive.
Brain pathways and circuitry is highest level and continues to increase in this stage of development of the prefrontal cortex.
Cortical thickening in the temporal and frontal lobe reflecting language and reading abilities. Then synaptic pruning where parts of the brain not being used lose synaptic connections.
C. Describe motor development.
Become much smoother and more coordinated then in early childhood, boys usually outperform girls.
Girls usually outperform same age boys in fine motor skills
D. Discuss the influence of exercise and sports.
From 1969 80% where participated in daily physical education programs, and fell down to 20% in 1999.
Exercise and sports is very important for refining the developing skills
E. Discuss obesity and its common causes.
Causes are increased total calories from salty snacks, soft drinks, and pizza, and large decreases in calories from low and medium fat milk and medium and high fat beef and pork. Then time spent watching TV and consuming soft drinks and eating less family meals are more likely to be FAT!
Learning Goal 2: Identify different types of disabilities that affect children, and describe issues in educating children with disabilities.
A. Define learning disabilities.
Issues with learning based on three criteria.
B. Define and discuss the three criteria that define learning disabilities.
1> A minimum IQ level 2> A significant difficulty in school related areas, like reading, mathematics
3> Exclusion of severe emotional disorders, second language background, sensory disabilities, and specific neurological deficits.
C. Define and discuss attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
One or more shown issue as Inattention where the child has problems focusing on one thing and get bored in a few minutes or a few seconds, hyperactivity where high levels of physical activity to be almost constantly in motion, and impulsivity were the child do not have a good job of thinking before they act.
D. Discuss educational issues related to children with disabilities.
Before 1975, US public schools either refused enrollment or inadequate services for kids with disabilities.
1975 public law 94-142 required kids with disabilities be given free appropriate public education
1990 law 94-142 was recast as Individuals with Disabilities education act, and amended in 1997 and then reauthorized in 2004 and renamed Disabilities Education Improvement Act or IDEA
E. Discuss individualized education plans.
A written statement that spells out a program to work for your child with disability.
F. Discuss the least restrictive environment.
A child with disabilities is educated in the same setting or environment as a child with out disabilities.
Learning Goal 3: Explain cognitive changes in middle and late childhood.
A. Describe and discuss Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
Preschool children are just forming stable concepts and began to reason but their thinking is flawed by egocentrism and magical belief. The middle to late childhood cognitive development they think in concrete operational thought.
B. Evaluate Piaget's theory.
There are more than just cognitive theory, like how children use attention, memory, and strategies to process information.
C. Define intelligence.
Problem-solving skills and the ability to learn from, and adapt to, the experiences of everyday life.
D. Describe Alfred Binet’s work.
He created a test to separate students who did not learn well in school. The test was called the 1905 scale. Later he developed the concept of Mental Age (MA) or individual’s level of mental development relative to others. Later on William Stern created the IQ tests
E. Discuss the impact of culture on intelligence.
Intelligence in one culture can be thought as non intelligent in another culture.
Western cultures view intelligence of reasoning and thinking as Eastern cultures see it as members of a community to engage successfully in social roles.
Chapter 8: Socioemotional Development
in Middle and Late Childhood
Learning Goal 1: Discuss emotional and personality development in middle and late childhood.
A. Describe and discuss the development of self-understanding in middle and late childhood.
8 to 11 years of age, kids describe themselves more concrete as popular, helpful, nice, mean, dumb, and smart.
They reference social groups, and compare themselves with others.
B. Define and discuss the differences between self-esteem and self-concept.
Self-esteem is the global evaluation of ones self as self-concept is the domain-specific, like appearance, athletic, academic, etc.
C. Discuss self-efficacy and self-regulation.
Self-efficacy is the belief that one can handle a situation or master it and produce a favorable outcome.
Self-regulation is the ability to change one’s behavior, emotions, and thoughts to increase social competence and achievements.
D. Discuss Erickson’s industry vs. inferiority stage.
Industry is where a child wants to learn, make, build, and work or is encouraged to do so.
Inferiority is when the child gets a negative response like “mischief” or “making a mess”.
E. Describe and discuss Kohlberg’s theory and stages of moral development
He proposes six stages of moral development that are universal.
Preconventional reasoning: Kids interpret good and bad in terms of external rewards and punishments.
1 Heteronomous Morality – children obey adults because they told them to and people base their moral decisions on fear and punishment
2 Individualism, purpose, and exchange – pursue their own interests but let others do the same and what is right involves equal exchange.
Conventional reasoning: Apply certain standards set by others, like parents or government.
3 Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity – value of trust, caring, and loyalty to others as basis for moral judgments
4 Social System Morality – Moral judgments are based on understanding of social order, law, justice, and duty.
Postconventional reasoning: Highest level at which an individual recognizes alternative moral course and explores the options and then decides on personal moral code.
5 Social contract or utility and individual rights – reason that values, rights, and principles underlie or transcend the law.
6 Universal ethical principles – develop a moral standard based on universal human rights.