Chapter 5: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood  Due Wednesday, July 15, Before 12:00 Noon



Learning Goals


Learning Goal 1:           Identify physical changes in early childhood.


A.  Describe height and weight changes in early childhood.

     Average child grows 2.5 inches in length, and gains 5 to 7 pounds a year during early childhood.  Up to preschool years, the percentage of length increases but weight decreases.

B.  Explain the developmental changes of the brain during early childhood.

     From 3 to 6 years old the prefrontal cortex has the most rapid.


     3-15 years old, the overall size of the brain does not increase, but some areas in the brain double less than a year and than some parts loss of tissue of unneeded cells are purged as the brain reorganize itself.

     Myelination occurs were the axons are covered with a layer of fat cells which increases the speed and efficiency of information traveling in the nervous system.   

C.  Define gross motor development and describe the changes in gross motor skills during early childhood.


     3 year old have simple achievements and pride for being able to run and jump, hopping, and jump 6 inches


     4 year old can now play in jungle gyms a can now climb one step at a time, and are just able to come down the same way.


     5 year olds are more adventurous and do more dangerous stunts and enjoy racing with each other and parents. 

D.  Define fine motor development and describe the changes in fine motor skills during early childhood.

     3 years of age, have the ability to pick up tiny objects between their thumbs.  With intensive concentration can build block towers that are not straight and are rough assembling jigsaw puzzles.


     4 years of age can do what a 3 year old can do but more precise.  It’s hard for some to build high tower blocks as they spend their time making them perfect.


     5 years of age, hand arm, and body movement are synched with the eyes and the child no longer wants to make towers with bricks, he needs something more advanced.

E.  Discuss the origin and development of handedness and how this is related to the brain, language, and other abilities.

     Right-handed vs. Left handed, 1 in 9 are LH.  RH is dominant in all cultures.  Genetic inheritances play a role. 


     LH seems to have issues reading, but 20% are top SAT scores, and good at mathematics, musicians, architects, and artist.


Learning Goal 2:     Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.


A.  Describe Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development.

     Lasts 2 to 7 years of age the second Piagetian stage.  Children represent the world in words, images, and drawings. 

     Can be divided by symbolic function and intuitive thought substage.  

     Egocentrism is present and magical beliefs are constructed.

B.  Describe the symbolic function substage of Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development.

     Between 2 to 4, gain the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.  Limitations are egocentrism and fantasy or magic, like animism.

C.  Define and describe the terms egocentrism and animism.

     The Inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s.  Like a child in this preoperational stage would not understand the view of a toy has or a person different than their own perspective.


     Animism is the belief that an inanimate object has lifelike properties and care capable of action.  Like if a child says, “I hate the sidewalk”  “It made me fall down” fails to distinguish non human and human perspectives.


D.  Describe the intuitive thought substage of Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development.

     Between 4 to 7 years of age where a child uses primitive reasoning and wants to know the answers to all questions (like my daughter who turned 7 two months ago)

E.  Define and describe the terms centration and conservation.

     Centration is focusing on one characteristic ignoring the rest of an object or thought.  Conservation is the awareness of altering an object or substance does not change its basic properties.


     Like if I poured pop into a taller glass for my son, and a wider glass for my daughter my daughter would complain because my son got more, when in fact it was the same amount of liquid as my daughter is not past Piaget’s preoperational stage as she is just 7.   

F.   Describe Vygotsky’s social constructivist approach.

     Children need other more skilled children or an adult to teach them which emphasizes the social contexts of learning and construction of knowledge requires social interaction. 


G.  Define the terms zone of proximal development and scaffolding.


     Zone of proximal development is where it’s too difficult for a child to master alone and requires assistance


     Scaffolding is the changing in the level of support.


Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood



Learning Goals


Learning Goal 1:     Discuss emotional and personality development in early childhood.


A.  Define and discuss self-understanding in the development of the self.

     Young children are psychological aware of themselves than use to be though.

     Self-understanding is the child’s cognitive representation of them which includes the substance and content of the child’s self-conception.


 B.  Discuss emotional development.

     Around 18 months of age, pride and guilt become more common.


     Between 2 to 4 children increase more terms to describe emotions and the causes and consequences of feelings.


     4 to 5 show an increase to reflect on emotions.


     Emotion-dismissing – parents ignore, deny, or change negative emotions.


      Emotions-coaching parents monitor their kid’s view of negative emotions as opportunity to teach and learn.



C.    Describe moral feelings and behavior.

          Feelings of anxiety and guilt are part of moral development in feelings.  Freud says to reduce anxiety, avoid punishment maintain parental affection and internalize their standards of right and wrong which will help the superego for moral element of personality.

          Moral behavior is set by the process of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation.  It requires according to social cognitive theorists, self-control. 


D.  Compare and contrast the contributions of Freud, Piaget and Kohlberg on moral development.

     Freud’s moral development is using his psychoanalytic theory that guilt can motivate moral behavior.


     Piaget has a more complicated theory than Freud about moral development where children 4 to 7 display heteronomous morality were they think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties without control of people.  7 to 10 is the transition to autonomous morality that they become aware that rules and laws are created by people and judging an action intentions and consequences.


     Kohlberg is pretty much same as Piaget but he emphasizes of the give-and-take of peer relations.  He thinks that in heteronomous stage, that children decide right and wrong and consequences of reward or punishment.


     E.  Define gender, gender identity, and gender role.

          Gender is male or female, children pretty much know if they are male or female at 3 years of age.


          Gender role is a set of expectations of how males and females should think, feel, and act.


Learning Goal 2:     Explain how families can influence young children’s development.


A.  Discuss, compare, and contrast the four different parenting styles.

     Authoritarian parenting is has low verbal exchange and where the parents make their kids follow their directions and respect work and effort and the parents places firm limits and controls.  The kids later become social incompetent.


     Kind of like above, authoritative parenting place limits and controls on actions, but have extensive verbal give-and-take between kid and parent.  This parenting style encourages the kids to be independent and the parents are warm and nurturing toward the kids.  Children can be social competent. 


     Neglectful parenting is where the kids are neglected and get and feel that their parents have more important things to do then themselves.  Children become social incompetent just like Authoritarian parenting.  The also have poor self-control, low self-esteem, are immature and alienated from the family.  Adolescence shows truancy and delinquency. 


     Indulgent parenting is where parents do not control the kids at all or push demands.  They believe in warm involvement and few restraints will produce more creative and confident child.  The kids end social incompetence and lack of self-control.


     Authoritarian, Neglectful, and Indulgent parenting have the result, social incompetence. 


     Authoritative parenting is somewhat like the worm of indulgent parenting, and authoritarian parenting. 


B.  Define punishment, and discuss alternatives.

     Corporal (physical) punishment as spanking method is still used today and is legal in every state of the United States.  Below is a list of why not to punish by yelling or spanking a kid

1   Yelling or spanking shows the kid an out of control method where that kid can imitate.

2   kids can have more fear, rage, or avoidance.

3   the punishment tell the kid what NOT to do rather than what to do.        

4   Parent can get a rush on the punishment and lose control later abusing the child.


     It would better to create a setting of positive reinforcement and for punishment, time out or take away the TV viewing for an age appropriate specified time.   


C.  Discuss co-parenting.

     Is when both parents agree to jointly raise the child.  If one parent differs of cooperation and warmth, and a disconnection by one parent can cause problems for the kid.


D.  Define child maltreatment, and compare and contrast child abuse and child maltreatment.

     Child Maltreatment is physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse

     Child abuse is the same as child maltreatment but the public and professionals use child abuse as developmentalists now use child maltreatment as it’s not has harsh as the word abuse.    


E.  Discuss the four types of child maltreatment.


          Physical abuse as in punched, beat, kicked, burned, shake, or anything           that hurts physically the child.


          Child neglect – such as failing to provide basic needs like food, shelter,           cloths and can be physical like abandonment not enforcing going to   school, or emotional inattention to the child’s needs.


          Sexual abuse – such as fondling child’s genitals, intercourse, rape,    sodomy, exhibitionism, commercial exploitation through prostitution or   production of pornographic materials.


          Emotional abuse – psychological/verbal abuse/mental injury like acts or           omissions by parent or parents, or daycare that caused or could cause          serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems.

          Emotional abuse is almost always present if the first three are not    identified.