Chapter 3: Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy  Due, Wednesday, July 8, Before 12:00 Noon



Learning Goals


Learning Goal 1:           Discuss physical growth and development in infancy.


A.  Describe the cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of development.

      Cephalocaudal is the pattern of which the infant develops from the top (the head) to the bottom (the feet).


     Proximodistal is the pattern of which the infant develops from the center or trunk to the extremities.


B.  Discuss changes in height and weight during the first two years of development.

     Newborns loose about 5% to 7% of their weight in the first several days of life before they learn how to feed. 


     They rapidly gain 5 to 6 ounces per week.


     They double their weight in four months, and triple it in one year.  And one year, they are 1.5 times birth length.


     At two years they weigh 26 to 32 lbs gaining a quarter to half a pound per month.  They are 1/5 of what they will weigh as an adult.  And they are 32 to 35 inches long, around a half of their adult length.


C.  Discuss brain development during infancy.

     Never shake a baby and should always be protected!  As 25% is the weight of a newborn, and 75% at 2 years old of adult size.  The newborn brain has 10 of billions of nerve cells and neurons.


D.  Define and discuss the functions of the four lobes of the brain and lateralization of function.

     Lateralization is the communication between the left and right hemispheres of the brain. 


     Each hemisphere has a frontal lobe, which does emotions among other things, parietal lobe behind and top, which process sensory information, behind and below that, is the occipital lobe which processes images which the eye receives.  And in front of that, is the temporal lobe which on the left side processes audio and speech or language.  On the right, the ability to do a metaphor or tell a joke so the left side is not exclusively used for language. .  


E.  Describe how early experiences affect the developing brain.

     It’s very important to stimulate children and not deprive them as brain activity for full potential like talking, playing, and touching.  Children that were suppressed before 5, will never grow I believe.

F.    Discuss infant sleep patterns, shared sleeping, and sudden infant death syndrome.

          American newborns sleep on average 10 to 21 hours.  Sometimes they sleep from 7 to 8 hours to four to three.  1 month they usually sleep longer.   And 4 months they sleep about the same as adult like sleep.   They sleep about ˝ REM, as adults only are 1/5. 

          Sudden infant death syndrome is where a newborn from 1 to 3 months the danger period, dies in their sleep due to not breathing.  The US has the most cases. Apparently using a pacifier can save newborns?


G.   Describe infant nutritional needs and eating behaviors, and discuss why nutrition is important to the developing infant. 

          Infants need 50 calories per pound, twice as much as an adult.  A random sample of 3,000 4 to 24 month old babies found that 1/3 ate no vegetables or fruit, almost half of 7 to 8 month old babies ate junk food, and at 15 months old, French fries!


H.  Discuss the pros and cons of both breast- and bottle-feeding.

                    Breast feeding should be done first before using a bottle if the           mother has no disease or is taking a drug that can negatively affect the           baby.

                    Some countries use to favor the bottle instead of breast feeding,           and found that the water in the bottle was full of infection, and the baby           died. 

                    Brest feeding has lowered risk up to two years, of obesity, fewer           allergies, less diarrhea, respiratory infections, bacterial and urinary tract           infections, and middle ear infection (otitis media) among stronger bones,           less cancer and SIDS, and more advanced neurological and cognitive           development.

Learning Goal 2:           Describe infants’ motor development.


A.  Describe and discuss infant reflexes.

     A reflex is involuntary movement and in infants:


     Tonic neck – forms fist w/ both hands and usally turns head to right “the “fencers pose” – disappears after 2 months


     Rooting – infant uses cheeks or mouth to find the nipple

     Sucking – any object touching mouth, automatically sucks

     Moro – stimulated by loud noise or being dropped infant will fling out arms and legs and rapidly close them to the center of body

     Stepping – infant will move its feet like to walk

     All four reflexes disappear in 3 to 4 months


     Grasping – palms touched will grasp tightly – weakens after 3 months to a year


     Babinski – sole of foot stroked then fans out toes, twists foot in

     Disappears after 9 months to a year


     Swimming – if you put the infant in water it will coordinate swimming movements- disappears after 6 to 7 months


     Blinking – flash of light or puff of air, closes both eyes – permanent


B.  Discuss how gross motor skills are developed.

          Large muscle activities like moving arms and legs to be able to sit, then eventually walk.  Also like crawling, and standing up using a chair or going down a slope like stairs.


C.  Describe the timeline for gross motor development and the variation in development.

     0 to three months – prone, lift head

     2 to 4 months – prone, chest up, use arms for support

     2 to 4.5 months – roll over

     3 to 6.5 months – Support some weight with legs

      4.5 to 7.5 months – Sitting without support

     5 to 10 months – Standing using support with help

     6 to 10 months – Pull self to stand like a table or chair

     7 to 12.5 months – Walk using furniture for support

     10 to 14 months – Stand alone easily

     11 to 14 months – walks alone easily

      13 to 18 months – ability to climb stairs

     18 to 24 months – can run, kick a ball balanced, walk backwards


D.  Discuss how fine motor skills are developed.

     Early on before the first year the skill is developed by when the infants reach for something without seeing their own hands, relying on cues from muscles and tendons, and joints.


Learning Goal 3:           Explain sensory and perceptual development in infancy.


A.  Define sensation and perception.

     Sensation is of the five sensory receptors, eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils and skin.


     Perception is the interpretation of what is sensed, like the smell of food or poop, or colors and shapes or flashes, bitter vs. sweet, and cold vs. hot in the skin. 

B.  Describe an infant’s visual acuity and perception of color.

     A new born sees 20/600 and by 6 months 20/100 and will see as a normal adult of 20/20 after one year.  


     However, newborns can distinguish between green and red.  And all of the color-sensitive receptors function by 2 months old.


C.  Discuss how infants perceive their visual worlds.

     2 to 3 week old infants prefer to look at patterned displays rather than a non-patterned display.  And as they get older, they spend more time examining the details.  At 1 year, toddlers can perceive depth, and it is thought that about 3 to 4 months that occurs. 


D.  Describe both fetal and infant hearing.

     A study showed that before being born, and the mother read over and over a book, then after the baby was born read something different, they sucked different on the nipple when reading the new book. 


     1 the newborn cannot hear soft sounds

     2 more likely to hear high-pitched then low pitch sound and at 2 years of age, they have the ability to distinguish pitches.

     3 newborns can determine where the sound is coming from and continues to the 2nd year.


E.  Discuss the role of touch and pain in infant development.


F.   Discuss the development of smell and taste in infancy.

     A 6 day old infant preferred the smell of an old breast pad than a new one, but 2 day old infants didn’t show, meaning the infant took a few days to remember smell. 


     Taste, 2 hours after birth, facial expression showed that a baby knew sweet, sour, and bitter solutions.  At 4 months old, infants preferred salty taste which at being a newborn they did not like it.

G.  Describe intermodal perception and the role it plays in development.

     Intermodal perception is the ability to use two senses like visional and auditory.  It plays a role in development by making a connection mentally.  Newborns hear a sound and look at where the sound came from. 

Learning Goal 4:     Summarize the cognitive processes in Piaget’s theory and the stage of sensorimotor development.


A.  Define behavioral and mental schemes.

     Infants create behavioral schemes like simple actions on objects, sucking, looking, and grasping.

     Older children create schemes of strategies and plans for solving a problem.


B.  Define and discuss assimilation, accommodation, and organization.

     Assimilation is taking new information into existing schemes


     Accommodation is when children adjust their schemes from new experiences and information.


     Organization when a child groups isolated behaviors into higher-order more smoothly functioning cognitive system.


C.  Describe and discuss the six substages of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage.

     1 Simple reflexes – such as infant reflexes


     2 first habits and primary circular reactions – 1 to 4 months of age, coordinates sensation and two types of schemes, habit and primary circular reactions.  E.g. infants in first stage see a bottle, they suck.  This stage, they suck regardless if they see a bottle and can suck their fingers first accidentally to now a habit.   


     3 secondary circular reactions – 4 to 8 months the infant becomes more object oriented and repeat an action because of its consequences.  Such as shaking a rattle to produce sound, this stage is when the baby will imitate simple actions, baby talk or burbling of adults.


      4 coordination of secondary circular reactions – 8 to 12 months more progress with coordination of vision and touch, eye and hand.  The baby will move toys to reach with a stick.


      5 tertiary circular reactions – 12 to 18 months – more intense of the 4th stage, and points to human curiosity and interest in novelty.


      6 internalization of schemes – 18 to 24 months ability to use primitive symbols or words.


D.  Define and discuss object permanence and causality.

     One of the most important accomplishments according to Piaget understands that an object continues to exist when they cannot see, hear, or touch it



Chapter 4: Socioemotional Development in Infancy



Learning Goals


Learning Goal 1:     Discuss emotional and personality development in infancy.


A.  Define emotion.

     Feeling or affect that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to their well-being.


B.  Discuss the biological and environmental influences on emotion.

     Blind newborns smile and frown like normal newborns.  Facial expressions like happy, surprised, anger and fear are the same across cultures.  However, display of rules of when, where, and how emotions are shown is not culturally universal.


C.  Distinguish between the three types of infant cries.

     Basic cry – a rhythmic pattern of crying followed by brief silence, then a shorter whistle or higher pitch than a main cry and repeats- experts believe it’s a cry for food.


     Anger cry – like the basic cry but more excess air forced through the vocal cords.


     Pain cry – A Sudden long loud cry followed by breath held, no preliminary moaning is present. 


D.  Describe the two types of infant smiles.

     Reflexive smile – does not occur in response to external stimuli and appears during the first month, usually during sleep.

     Social smile – occurs after 4 weeks of age after a response to external stimuli like caregiver’s voice. 


E.  Discuss fear and the concepts of stranger anxiety and separation protest.

     Fear occurs in starting 6 months and peaks at 18 months, but if the infant is abused can come as early as 3 months.


     Stranger anxiety is wariness of strangers tends to be from 6 to 9 months old, until 1 birthday.


     Separtoin protest is when the infant cries after being separated from the caregiver.  It peaks at 15 months old


F.   Define temperament.

     An individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding.

G.  Discuss how biology, gender, and culture impact temperament.

      Biological temperament from the physiological characteristics such as heart rate, higher level of hormone cortisol, and high activity in the right frontal lobe of the brain of the amygdale can cause fear or inhibition, but studies of twins and adopted kids show moderate influence.


     Gender like if the parents give more attention to the crying a girl vs. the crying boy.


     Culture temperament like China they favor more inhibition then North America.


H.  Describe Erikson’s first stage of psychosocial development.

     Trust vs. mistrust in the first year of a child’s live.  Like a infant that is not worm and fed well, he or she will have mistrust.  On the other had a child who successfully went through the first stage with trust might develop mistrust in later stages if his or her parents split up or die.


I.    Discuss the development of the self in infancy.

     At 3 months a infant can distinguish themselves in a mirror but it will take 2 year to recognize one’s physical features.


J.   Describe Erikson’s second stage of psychosocial development and how it relates to the development of independence.

          Autonomy vs. doubt and shame is when a parent or caregiver who           rushes or does what the toddler can do for it self doubt and shame           develops.  The first year a baby develops climbing, open and close,           drop, and push and pull, and hold and let go and they get pride for           completing these accomplishments. 


          The development of autonomy during the toddler years gives the           future adolescence more courage to be a more independence           individual.